joi, 17 februarie 2011

What are Essential Oils ?

Essential oils are the concentrated essence of plant material widely used in aromatherapy. They are exclusively made from botanical matter, so any fragrance that contains musk (an animal product), for instance, is not pure essential oil. They are often confused with synthetic fragrance oils, which are chemical recreations of scents made primarily from coal tar. While these fragrance oils may smell identical to their botanical counterparts, they do not feature the same chemical structure and will not have the same therapeutic effects; their use is limited to perfumery.
Essential oils are typically extracted from plant matter via steam distillation. The plant material is treated with steam, which 'cooks' the plant, breaking it down and releasing its essential oil. The steam containing the essential essences is cooled and the oil separated from the water and filtered to become essential oils.

Some essential oils can be extracted through pressing, just as grape juice can be pressed from the grape. If you twist a piece of lemon or orange rind, the rind will yield a bit of liquid which is oily and smells strongly of the fruit - this oil is the fruit's essential oil and is easily extractable through a press.

Essential oils vary widely in price, depending largely on the amount of plant material needed to make them. The citrus oils are quite economical to make, since the citrus rind contains a lot of oil, and thus less expensive than the oils derived from flowers, which contain very little oil. It can take over a hundred pounds (45 kilograms) of lavender flowers to make a pound of lavender essential oil. That may sound high, until you consider that it takes over a thousand pounds (450 kilograms) of jasmine to make a pound of jasmine essential oil. Jasmine, rose and neroli (orange blossom) are among the most costly of all the essential oils.

While a very few essential oils, such as lavender and tea tree, are safe to apply directly to the skin, most are so concentrated that they must be diluted with 'carrier oils'. Carrier oils are massage oils typically made from nuts and seeds - apricot kernel, grapeseed and jojoba are all good blending oils.

The aromatherapeutic effects of essential oils can be administered in different ways, depending on the oil and the effect. Skin absorption is one of the most common methods - a dilute blend of essential oils and carrier oils are massaged into the skin, which absorbs the active ingredient of the essential oil into the bloodstream.

Inhalation of steam containing vaporized essential oils is often a very effective way to treat respiratory complaints, and is also one of the most widely used methods of using essential oils for their mood-enhancing and emotion-stabilizing effects. A few drops of essential oil in a small glass bowl of water over a tealight candle is all you need to infuse your surroundings with a lovely scent that can calm or invigorate, depending on the oil you choose. 

Therapeutic Grade Essential Oils
  • There are, however, commonly accepted practices involved in the growing, harvesting and distilling of therapeutic-grade essential oils. Understanding these practices is essential to obtaining the best essential oils.
  • It is a safe alternative if you have a busy household where another type of diffuser might be knocked over accidentally. Essential oil diffusers for therapeutic use differ from their room-freshener cousins. Heating therapeutic-grade oils diminishes their effectiveness, so these diffusers operate without generating heat.

Essential Oil Blends 
  • Examples of middle notes are lavender, rosemary, juniper and nutmeg, while examples of base notes are rose, clove, sandalwood and jasmine. When mixing an essential oil blend, beginners usually make sure they have all three notes in their blend.
  • As for its fragrance, myrrh essential oil acts as a perfume when combined with other types of aromatherapy oils. Compatible essential oil blends include myrrh with frankincense, lavender, sandalwood, rosewood, thyme, and others such as juniper and patchouli.
Frankincense Essential Oil
  • The oil can also be applied directly to sores and damaged skin with a washcloth. Some who use frankincense essential oil also claim that the substance, rubbed into the skin, can help alleviate joint ailments such as arthritis.
  • As for its fragrance, myrrh essential oil acts as a perfume when combined with other types of aromatherapy oils. Compatible essential oil blends include myrrh with frankincense, lavender, sandalwood, rosewood, thyme, and others such as juniper and patchouli. 

Sandalwood Essential Oil 
  • It may also be added to bath products and candles. In aromatherapy, sandalwood essential oil is believed to have a calming effect. It is also used to focus the mind for meditation.
  • As for its fragrance, myrrh essential oil acts as a perfume when combined with other types of aromatherapy oils. Compatible essential oil blends include myrrh with frankincense, lavender, sandalwood, rosewood, thyme, and others such as juniper and patchouli.

Ylang Ylang Essential Oil 
  • In parts of the Pacific Rim, ylang ylang, with its heavy and sweet scent similar to jasmine, is associated with weddings and honeymoons. Ylang ylang essential oil comes in four grades: ylang extra, ylang I, ylang II, and ylang III.
  • Almost all materials that are used to make essential oil only require one process of essential oil distillation. There are just a few exceptions. Ylang ylang is one of those exceptions. Most essential oil distillation happens on an industrial level with oil produced in large quantities for use in body products or for retail sale.

Bergamot Essential Oil on wiseGEEK:
  • Bergamot is also used to enhance the flavor and aroma of Earl Grey tea. In aromatherapy, bergamot essential oil is believed to inspire feelings of love, happiness and self-confidence.
  • To enhance the stimulating properties of eucalyptus essential oil, it can be blended with orange or bergamot essential oils while lavender may increase its relaxing effects. Applied topically, eucalyptus essential oil has been known to alleviate arthritis and cramps. 

List of essential oils

Essential oils are volatile and liquid aroma compounds from natural sources, usually plants. Essential oils are not oils in a strict sense, but often share with oils a poor solubility in water. Essential oils often have an odor and are therefore used in food flavoring and perfumery. Essential oils are usually prepared by fragrance extraction techniques such as distillation (including steam distillation), cold pressing, or extraction (maceration). Essential oils are distinguished from aroma oils (essential oils and aroma compounds in an oily solvent), infusions in a vegetable oil, absolutes, and concretes. Typically, essential oils are highly complex mixtures of often hundreds of individual aroma compounds.

    * Agar oil, distilled from Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis). Highly prized for its fragrance.[1]
    * Ajwain oil, distilled from the leaves of Bishop’s weed (Carum copticum). Oil contains 35-65% thymol.[2]
    * Angelica root oil, distilled from the Angelica archangelica.[3]
    * Anise oil, from the Pimpinella anisum, rich odor of licorice, used medicinally.[4]
    * Asafoetida, used medicinally and to flavor food.
    * Balsam oil, from the Myroxylon pereirae.[5]
    * Basil oil is used in making perfumes, as well as in aromatherapy
    * Bay is used in perfumery; Aromatherapeutic for sprains, colds, flu, insomnia, rheumatism.
    * Bergamot oil, used in aromatherapy and in perfumes.
    * Black Pepper essential oil is distilled from the berries of Piper nigrum. The warm, soothing effect makes it ideal for treating muscle aches, pains and strains.
    * Buchu oil, made from the buchu shrub. Considered toxic and no longer widely used. Formerly used medicinally.
    * Birch is aromatheapeutic for gout, Rheumatism, Eczema, Ulcers.
    * Camphor is used for cold, cough, fever, rheumatism, arthritis
    * Cannabis flower essential oil, used as a flavoring in foods, primarily candy and beverages. Also used as a scent in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, and candles.[6]
    * Caraway oil, used a flavoring in foods. Also used in mouthwashes, toothpastes, etc. as a flavoring agent.[7]
    * Cardamom seed oil, used in aromatherapy and other medicinal applications. Extracted from seeds of subspecies of Zingiberaceae (ginger). Also used as a fragrance in soaps, perfumes, etc.[8]
    * Carrot seed oil (essential oil), used in aromatherapy.
    * Cedarwood oil, primarily used in perfumes and fragrances.[9]
    * Chamomile oil, There are many varieties of chamomile but only two are used in aromatherapy- Roman and German. Both have similar healing properties but German chamomile contains a higher level of azulin (an anti-inflammatory agent).
    * Calamus Root, used medicinally
    * Cinnamon oil, used for flavoring and medicinally.
    * Cistus species
    * Citronella oil, from a plant related to lemon grass is used as an insect repellent, as well as medicinally.
    * Clary Sage
    * Clove leaf oil, used as a topical anesthetic to relieve dental pain.
    * Coffee, used to flavor food.
    * Coriander
    * Costmary oil (bible leaf oil), from the Tanacetum balsamita[10][11]
    * Costus Root, used medicinally
    * Cranberry seed oil, equally high in omega-3 omega-6 fatty acids, primarily used in the cosmetic industry.
    * Cubeb, used medicinally and to flavor foods.
    * Cumin oil/Black seed oil, used as a flavor, particularly in meat products. Also used in veterinary medicine.
    * Cypress
    * Cypriol
    * Curry leaf, used medicinally and to flavor food.
    * Davana oil, from the Artemisia pallens, used as a perfume ingredient and as a germicide.[12]
    * Dill oil, chemically almost identical to caraway seed oil. High carvone content.
    * Elecampane, used medicinally.
    * Eucalyptus oil, historically used as a germicide. Commonly used in cough medicine, among other medicinal uses.[13]
    * Fennel seed oil, used medicinally, particularly for treating colic in infants.
    * Fenugreek oil, used medicinally and for cosmetics from ancient times.
    * Fir
    * Frankincense oil, used for aromatherapy and in perfumes.
    * Galangal, used medicinally and to flavor food.
    * Galbanum
    * Geranium oil, used medicinally, particularly in aromatherapy, used for hormonal imbalance, for this reason geranium is often considered to be "female" oil.
    * Ginger oil, used medicinally in many cultures.
    * Goldenrod
    * Grapefruit oil, extracted from the peel of the fruit. Used in aromatherapy. Contains 90% limonene.[14]
    * Henna oil, used medicinally.[15]
    * Helichrysum
    * Horseradish oil
    * Hyssop
    * Idaho Tansy
    * Jasmine oil, used for its flowery fragrance.
    * Juniper berry oil, used as a flavor. Also used medicinally, including traditional medicine.

Lavender oil is distilled from the lavender flower

    * Laurus nobilis
    * Lavender oil, used primarily as a fragrance. Also used medicinally.[16]
    * Ledum
    * Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. Unlike other essential oils, lemon oil is usually cold pressed. Used medicinally, as an antiseptic, and in cosmetics.[17]
    * Lemongrass. Lemongrass is a highy fragrant grass from India. In India, it is used to help treat fevers and infections. The oil is very useful for insect repellent.
    * Lime, anti septic, anti viral, astringent, aperitif, bactericidal, disinfectant, febrifuge, haemostatic, restorative and tonic.[18]
    * Litsea cubeba oil, lemon-like scent, often used in perfumes and aromatherapy.
    * Mandarin
    * Marjoram
    * Melaleuca See Tea tree oil
    * Melissa oil (Lemon balm), sweet smelling oil used primarily medicinally, particularly in aromatherapy.
    * Mentha arvensis oil/Mint oil, used in flavoring toothpastes, mouthwashes and pharmaceuticals, as well as in aromatherapy and other medicinal applications.[19]
    * Mountain Savory
    * Mugwort oil, used in ancient times for medicinal and magical purposes. Currently considered to be a neurotoxin.[20]
    * Mustard oil (essential oil), containing a high percentage of allyl isothiocyanate or other isothiocyanates, depending on the species of mustard
    * Myrrh oil, warm, slightly musty smell. Used medicinally.
    * Myrtle
    * Neem Tree Oil
    * Neroli is produced from the blossom of the bitter orange tree.
    * Nutmeg
    * Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled. Consists of 90% d-Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods.[21]
    * Oregano oil, contains thymol and carvacrol, making it a useful fungicide. Also used to treat digestive problems.[22]
    * Orris oil is extracted from the roots of the Florentine iris (Iris florentina) and used as a flavouring agent, in perfume, and medicinally.[23]
    * Palo Santo
    * Parsley oil, used in soaps, detergents, colognes, cosmetics and perfumes, especially men’s fragrances.[24]
    * Patchouli oil, very common ingredient in perfumes.
    * Perilla essential oil, extracted from the leaves of the perilla plant. Contains about 50-60% perillaldehyde.
    * Pennyroyal oil, highly toxic. It is abortifacient and can even in small quantities cause acute liver and lung damage.[25]
    * Peppermint oil, used in a wide variety of medicinal applications.
    * Petitgrain
    * Pine oil, used as a disinfectant, and in aromatherapy.
    * Ravensara
    * Red Cedar
    * Roman Chamomile
    * Rose oil, distilled from rose petals, Used primarily as a fragrance.
    * Rosehip oil, distilled from the seeds of the Rosa rubiginosa or Rosa mosqueta. Used medicinally.
    * Rosemary oil, distilled from the flowers of Rosmarinus officinalis. Used in aromatherapy, topically to sooth muscles, and medicinal for its antibacterial and antifungal properties.[26]
    * Rosewood oil, used primarily for skin care applications. Also used medicinally.
    * Sage oil, used medicinally.

The spice star anise is distilled to make star anise oil

    * Sandalwood oil, used primarily as a fragrance, for its pleasant, woody fragrance.[27]
    * Sassafras oil, from sassafras root bark. Used in aromatherapy, soap-making, perfumes, and the like. Formerly used as a spice, and as the primary flavoring of root beer, inter alia.
    * Savory oil, from Satureja species. Used in aromatherapy, cosmetic and soap-making applications.
    * Schisandra oil, from Schisandra chinensis, used medicinally.
    * Spearmint oil, often used in flavoring mouthwash and chewing gum, among other applications.
    * Spikenard, used medicinally.
    * Spruce
    * Star anise oil, highly fragrant oil using in cooking. Also used in perfumery and soaps, has been used in toothpastes, mouthwashes, and skin creams.[28] 90% of the world's star anise crop is used in the manufacture of Tamiflu, a drug used to treat influenza, and is hoped to be useful for avian flu
    * Tangerine
    * Tarragon oil, distilled from Artemisia dracunculus, used medicinally.
    * Tea tree oil, distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia, used medicinally. Being a powerful antiseptic, antibacterial and antiviral agent, tea tree's ability to fight infection is second to none.
    * Thyme oil, used medicinally.
    * Tsuga
    * Turmeric, used medicinally and to flavor food
    * Valerian, used medicinally
    * Vetiver oil (khus oil) a thick, amber oil, primarily from India. Used as a fixative in perfumery, and in aromatherapy
    * Western red cedar
    * Wintergreen
    * Yarrow oil is used medicinally, to relieve joint pain
    * Ylang-ylang
    * Zedoary, used medicinally and to flavor food



  1. ^ a b c d Sapeika, Norman. Actions and uses of Drugs, Pub: A.A.Balkema, 1963
  2. ^ a b Thorpe's Dictionary of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 8, 4th ed. Pub: Longmans Green. 1947
  3. ^ Gilman, Alfred; Goodman, Louis Sanford (1990). Goodman and Gilman's The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. New York: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-040296-8. 
  4. ^ Klaassen, Curtis D.; Amdur, Mary O.; Casarett, Louis J.; Doull, John (1991). Casarett and Doull's toxicology: the basic science of poisons. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-105239-9. 
  5. ^ E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of ... - Google Books
  6. ^ "ISO TC 54 Business Plan — Essential oils" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-09-14.  It is unclear from the source what period of time the quoted figures include.
  7. ^ Haneke, Karen E: Turpentine [8006-64-2] Review of Toxicological Literature Pub.: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences 2002
  8. ^ Watt, John Mitchell, Breyer-Brandwijk, Maria Gerdina: The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa 2nd ed Pub. E & S Livingstone 1962
  9. ^ Seenivasan Prabuseenivasan, Manickkam Jayakumar, and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu (November 30, 2006). "In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils". BMC Complement Altern Med. 6: 39. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-6-39. PMID 17134518. PMC 1693916. 
  10. ^ Henley, D. V.; Lipson, N; Korach, KS; Bloch, CA (2007). "Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils". New England Journal of Medicine 356 (5): 479–85. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa064725. PMID 17267908. 
  11. ^ "Oils make male breasts develop". BBC News. 2007-02-01. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  12. ^ For example: Menary,R.C. Minimising pesticide residues in essential oils, 2008 Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation
  13. ^ Bischoff K, Guale F (April 1998). "Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil poisoning in three purebred cats". J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 10 (2): 208–10. PMID 9576358. 
  14. ^
  15. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "ISO 4720:2002 Essential oils — Nomenclature". Retrieved 23 April 2009. 
  16. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "71.100.60: Essential oils". Retrieved 14 June 2009.

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Types of Coffee

Coffee is a great beverage – one that’s been used over the years and also has a fair share of romanticism attached to it. But the next time you decide to gulp down some caffeine – be it to stay awake before an exam, to get back to piled up work, to improve athletic performance on the track field, or just to get a high – do it in as healthy a way as possible.

Most people when looking at the menu in a coffee house have no clue on what to order and have no idea of the difference between a cappuccino from an Espresso or an Americano. The list below will help you appreciate the menu better and also help you decide what is best for your palate –

Coffee can be had on its own as in Espresso or with added milk, lemon or brandy.


Espresso has no milk, just pure coffee. Most traditional coffee recipes revolve around a single or double espresso shots. If you are a coffee connoisseur then you should try and learn how to make one.

It is generally made from a single 1 oz shot of coffee made with 7 Gms of finely ground coffee extracted at between 18 and 25 seconds. There are many recopies and this is small selection to choose from –

Americano (American) – This is espresso shot that is diluted to taste with hot water. The name was given to insult Americans who the Europeans believed were not up to drinking full espressos.

Black coffee: Coffee served with no milk.



Cappuccino usually consists of equal parts espresso, steamed milk, and frothed milk. All this makes the coffee taste more diluted and weaker. Some coffee shops will sprinkle cinnamon or flaked chocolate on top and other will add more milk than others. All shops make some variance to suit the taste of regular customers.

Dry Cappuccino

This is a regular cappuccino but without steamed milk and small amount of foam.

Flavored coffee

These are made to taste and more a local tradition. A great variety exists in different parts of the world. The flavor can be either a mix of syrups, spices (eg. cinnamon), flavorings or nutmegs that are added to the coffee and give coffee a different taste.

White coffee

A black coffee with milk added.


A cortado is an espresso (also known as "Pingo" or "Garoto") "cut" (from the Spanish and Portuguese cortar) with a small amount of warm milk to reduce the acidity. The ratio of milk to coffee is between 1:1 - 1:2, and the milk is added after the espresso. The steamed milk hasn't much foam, but many baristas make some micro foam to make latte art. It is popular in Spain and Portugal, as well as throughout Latin America, where it is drunk in the afternoon. In Cuba, it is known as a cortadito, and in Catalan it's called a tallat or trencat. It's usually served in a special glass, often with a metal ring base and a metal wire handle. There are several variations, including cortado condensada (espresso with condensed milk) and leche y leche (with condensed milk and cream on top).


Eiskaffee, literally "ice cream coffee", is a popular German drink consisting of chilled coffee, milk, sweetener, vanilla ice cream, and sometimes whipped cream.

Espresso Romano

An Espresso Romano is a shot of espresso with a small rind of lemon and sugar added to it.

Flat white

A flat white is prepared by pouring the creamy steamed milk from the bottom of the jug over a single shot (30ml) of espresso.
The drink is an coffee style originating from New Zealand and Australia and is sometimes served in a small 150-160ml ceramic cup. The stretched and texturised milk is prepared by entraining air into the milk and folding the top layer into the lower layers. To achieve the "flat", non-frothy texture the steamed milk is poured from the bottom of the jug, holding back the lighter froth on the top in order to access milk with smaller bubbles, making the drink smooth and velvety in texture. This leads to a white coffee with the crema on top still intact.


Frappuccino is the name and registered trademark of a Starbucks blended ice beverage and a bottled coffee beverage.


Galão is a hot drink from Portugal made of espresso and foamed milk. In all similar to caffè latte or café au lait, it comes in a tall glass with about one quarter coffee, 3 quarters foamed milk. When the proportion is 1:1 it is called "meia de leite" and it comes in a cup.

Greek frappé coffee

Greek frappé (Café frappé) (Greek: φραπές) is a foam-covered iced coffee drink made from spray-dried instant coffee. It is very popular in Greece especially during summer, but has now spread on to other countries. In French, when describing a drink, the word frappé means shaken and/or chilled; however, in popular Greek culture, the word frappé is predominantly taken to refer to the shaking associated with the preparation of a café frappé.

Iced coffee

Iced coffee is a cold variant of the normally hot beverage coffee.
  • Farmers Union Iced Coffee
  • Toddy coffee

Cafe Latte

Cafe Latte has more milk than a cappuccino. It is one part espresso with at least three to five parts ofsteamed hot milk with a small amount of froth on top. Latte in Italian means ‘milk’, so be careful ordering one when in Rome.

Cafe au Lait

Similar to ‘ Caffe Latte’ with an equal milk to coffee in the ratio of 1:1, It is made from brewed coffee and not from espresso. The taste is milder and less intense due to it consisting 50% milk

Cafe Breva

A cappuccino made with half and half milk, instead of whole milk. The theory is that the mix gives a richer, creamier flavor. You should be aware, before trying this for yourself, that half and half is much harder to foam.

Cafe Macchiato

A shot of espresso with steamed milk added. The ratio of coffee to milk is approximately 4:1.

Cafe Latte Fredo

It is a type of cold coffee. Cafe Latte Fredo is an espresso mixed with cold milk in similar proportions as a Cafe Latte that is usually shaken well with ice in a cocktail shaker.

Cafe Mocha

Quite popular with the ladies or after dinner coffee. It is one part espresso with one part chocolate syrup and two or three parts of frothed milk. You could also ask for some whipped cream. Mocha was the popular coffee port route in the 17th century.

Espresso con Panna

Another espresso that is topped with a small amount of whipped cream.

Espresso Granita

A kind of cocktail coffee! It is one shot of espresso that is mixed with a teaspoon of soft brown sugar and on this is added a splash of brandy. It is then frozen, crushed and served in a parfait glass with whipped cream.


This is a cold espresso and popularly ordered in some cafes in Europe and Latin America during summer months. Generally prepared using 1-2 teaspoons of instant coffee with sugar, water and ice. The brew is next placed in a long glass with ice, and milk turning it into a big coffee milkshake.

Turkish Coffee or Known also as Greek Coffee

A ‘different preparation from the usual coffee. It is thicker and made usually made in an ‘cezve’ which is a long-handled, open, brass or copper pot. Finely ground coffee and water are boiled together to making a mix of muddy and thick coffee. Once it is made it is served in smaller cups called ‘Demitasse’ cups. Sugar and sometimes cardamom pods or spices (more Arabic) are added before it is brewed and all this is left for sometime to allow it to settle before it is sipped. In Greek coffee Chicory is used and cracked cardamom pods to Turkish coffee.

Indian (Madras) filter coffee

The popular ‘South Indian’ filter coffee is made from fresh ground, dark-roasted coffee Arabica or Peaberry beans. It is left for a few hours to drip-brew in a traditional metal coffee filter. It is served with coffee to milk ratio of usually 3:1.

Instant coffee (or soluble coffee)

These have become very popular over the years due more to convenience and some people are not even aware that there are so many other tastes to try out and when served the real coffee fail to appreciate the aroma and its taste. The coffee is available in packets as granules or soluble powder.

Hammerhead or Shot in the Dark

This is a mix of espresso and drip coffee in a regular-sized coffee cup. Many cafes rename this drink further to their own names or as per to their needs.

Iced coffee

This is a regular coffee served with ice, and sometimes milk and sugar.

Irish coffee

If you want to have whiskey with coffee try this coffee. It consists of coffee that is spiked with Irish whiskey, with added cream on top. Best suited for a cold winter night to keep you warm.

Kopi Tubruk

If you visit islands of Java and Bali in Indonesia you can try this coffee. It is similar to Turkish or Greek coffee as it very thick.


This is 2-3 shot of espresso and has more water to pass through coffee grounds.


The name means ‘restricted’. It is like Lungo, but exactly the opposite as it has less water with 0.75 oz espresso. 

Kopi susu

Kopi susu is found in (at least) Malaysian Borneo and Indonesia and very similar to the preceding entry for Ca phe sua nong. Literally, kopi susu means "coffee milk". Served in a glass kopi susu can be made simply by mixing black coffee (arabica) with about a quarter to a half a glass of sweetened condensed milk then let stand to cool and allow the grounds to sink on the bottom. You should not drink this to the end unless you want to "eat" the ground coffee. Kopi Turbruk is as above but uses sugar instead of sweetened condensed milk.


Coffee with honey. Made by using coffee that is mixed with 1 teaspoon of unsweetened powdered cocoa and drizzled honey. It can be served with cream.

Vietnamese Coffee

Uses more and like south Indian coffee uses a metal mesh. Hot water is dripped through the metal mesh and after this the intense brew is poured over ice and sweetened with condensed milk.

If you are a heavy coffee drinker and wish to reduce the number of cuppa, there are also several coffee substitutes available in the market. These include green tea, licorice tea, black tea, ginseng tea, or even decaf. Some have negligible caffeine content while others (like decaf) have much lesser caffeine constituency than regular coffee.


Yuanyang, sometimes also called Ying Yong, is a popular beverage in Hong Kong, made of a mixture of coffee and Hong Kong-style milk tea. It was originally served at dai pai dongs (open air food vendors) and cha chaan tengs (cafe), but is now available in various types of restaurants. It can be served hot or cold. The name yuanyang, which refers to mandarin ducks, is a symbol of conjugal love in Chinese culture, as the birds usually appear in pairs and the male and female look very different. This same connotation of "pair" of two unlike items is used to name this drink.

Instant coffee

Instant coffee is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. Through various manufacturing processes the coffee is dehydrated into the form of powder or granules. These can be rehydrated with hot water to provide a drink similar (though not identical) to conventional coffee. At least one brand of instant coffee is also available in concentrated liquid form.
  • Chock full o'Nuts
  • Farmers Union Iced Coffee
  • Japanese canned coffee
  • Kenco
  • Moccona
  • Mr. Brown Coffee
  • Nescafé


Liqueur coffee

A liqueur coffee, as its name suggests, is a coffee brew with a 25 ml shot of liqueur. This brew is usually served in a clear, clean, pre-heated, liqueur coffee glass with the coffee and cream separated for good visual and taste effect. The liqueur of choice is added first with a teaspoon of raw cane sugar mixed in. The glass in then filled to within an inch of the top with good, strong, fresh filter coffee. Fresh, chilled, additive free, slightly whipped cream is then poured carefully over the back of a cold teaspoon, so that it floats on top of the coffee and liqueur mixture. The sugar is required in the coffee mixture to help the cream float.
  • Irish Coffee (Whiskey)
  • Brandy Coffee (Brandy)
  • Keoke Coffee (Brandy and Kahlúa)
  • English Coffee (Gin)
  • Calypso Coffee (Tia Maria or Kahlúa and Rum)
  • Jamaican Coffee (Tia Maria & Rum)
  • Shin Shin Coffee (Rum)
  • Baileys Irish Cream Coffee
  • Monk's Coffee (Bénédictine)
  • Seville Coffee (Cointreau)
  • Witch's Coffee (Strega)
  • Russian Coffee (Vodka)
  • Australian Coffee (VB)
  • Corfu Coffee (Koum Quat liquor)
  • Kaffee Fertig (coffee with Swiss prune schnapps)
  • Caffè corretto (that is an Italian beverage, consists of a shot of espresso "corrected" with a shot of liquor, usually grappa, brandy or sambuca.)
  • Coffee liqueurs (ex. The Evil Monk, Kahlúa, Kamora)

As we all know, coffee isn’t just coffee. When ordering in a coffee shop, there are a lot of types of coffee in which you should know, so that you will be able to keep up with the current “coffee” trend and lingo.
Here is a list of some of them: 

Americano – It is a mixture of a single shot of espresso with about 7 ounces of water.

Black Coffee – A French press style coffee served as is, with no milk.

Cafe au Lait – A slightly less intense variant of Caffe Latte, due to it being made with brewed coffee instead of espresso

Café Breva – Type of cappuccino made with half milk, instead of whole.

Caffe Latte – A mixture of a single shot espresso in steamed milk.

Café Macchiato – A stronger variety of Caffee Latte, having more espresso.

Cappuccino – An equal mixture of espresso, steamed milk, frothed milk, with cinnamon or flaked chocolate on top.

Double/Double Shot – A double shot of espresso.

Dry Cappuccino – A cappuccino having no steamed milk, plus a smaller amount of foam.
Espresso Con Panda – Espresso with whipped cream as a topping.

Flavored Coffee – Coffee that has an added flavor to it.

Frappe – Espresso that is served cold, with added sugar, water and ice.

Iced Coffee – Coffee with ice, which can also be served with milk or sugar.

Instant Coffee – As the name suggests, instant coffee is coffee that is served instantly. The taste may vary though. Good for those who are on the go.

Mocha – Basically, it is a cappuccino or latte that has been mixed with chocolate syrup.

White Coffee – Black coffee that has been added with milk.
Note, these are just some of the more common types of coffees that are ordered in coffee shops. There may be other types of coffees out there as well, which may vary depending from place to place. 

What is high cholesterol ?

A blood sample, taken after a person has fasted for several hours, can be used to measure the levels of all forms of cholesterol.
In the UK, the average total cholesterol level is 5.7mmol/l.
The levels of total cholesterol fall into the following categories:
  • ideal level: cholesterol level in the blood less than 5mmol/l.
  • mildly high cholesterol level: between 5 to 6.4mmol/l.
  • moderately high cholesterol level: between 6.5 to 7.8mmol/l.
  • very high cholesterol level: above 7.8mmol/l.
As well as this figure, doctors also have to take into account:
  • the ratio between good and bad cholesterol
  • the presence of other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as smoking, diabetes and high blood pressure.
It is possible for someone to have a high level of total cholesterol and still have a relatively low cardiovascular risk because of an absence of other risk factors or because their family history is free from coronary disease.
Anyone with an established track record of cardiovascular disease such as angina (chest pain), a previous heart attack, coronary angioplasty or coronary bypass surgery should seek advice to keep their total cholesterol level below 5mmol/l or their LDL below 3mmol/l.

What can cause high cholesterol levels?

Both hereditary and environmental factors affect the cholesterol level.
Cholesterol levels can run in families. If the inherited cholesterol levels are very high, this is called familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCH) is where the triglyceride levels are very high as well.
Levels can also be influenced by the part of the world you live in: cholesterol levels in northern European countries are higher than in southern Europe and much higher than in Asia.
We know that diet is a major factor, with diets that are high in saturated fat (cakes, pastry, meat, dairy products) raising cholesterol.
High cholesterol is also seen in connection with other diseases such as:
  • reduced metabolism due to thyroid problems
  • kidney diseases
  • diabetes
  • alcohol abuse.

What are the symptoms of high cholesterol in the bloodstream?

You can't feel whether you have high cholesterol levels in the same way that you can a headache, but a high level combined with other risk factors can lead to atherosclerosis and symptoms of cardiovascular disease.
Atherosclerosis is the build up of cholesterol and fat (fatty deposits or plaques) in the artery walls. The arteries become narrow and hardened, their elasticity disappears and it becomes difficult for blood to flow through.
These fatty plaques can rupture, causing blood to clot around the rupture. If blood can't then flow to a part of the body, the tissue dies.
The following are all symptoms of cardiovascular disease. They depend on the degree of narrowing, the likelihood that the plaque is going to rupture (vulnerability), and the organ supplied by the affected arteries.
  • If the arteries that supply the lower limbs narrow, this can cause leg pain when walking or running (intermittent claudication). If a clot suddenly blocks the major peripheral vessel to the lower limb, it may starve the leg of blood to such an extent that it requires amputation.
  • In the brain, a blood clot (thrombus) may block an artery or a smaller blood vessel may rupture, causing local haemorrhage (bleeding). Either will result in a stroke.
  • In the heart, narrowed coronary arteries cause angina and ruptured plaques cause blood clots that can lead to a heart attack. This may lead to reduced heart function if a significant amount of heart muscle is damaged.
  • If the carotid arteries in the neck become narrow, clots may form and float to the brain. This can result in a stroke or repeated 'mini-strokes' (transient ischaemic attacks or TIAs).
It's common for those most affected by atherosclerosis to have the disease in several arteries, including:
  • the aorta, the main artery in the chest and abdomen
  • renal (kidney) arteries
  • mesenteric (intestinal) vessels. 

20 Killer Image Sliders & Carousels

Whenever I am developing a new website or WordPress theme, I try and look for new kind of content sliders and carousel scripts (that can scroll images & HTML content). Over a period of time, I have bookmarked some efficient sliders that can also be easily integrated into WordPress if you have the skills. I am sure these will be helpful to both moderate and advanced developers alike. Here is the list :-

1. Sproing!

This is a lively script that make your images grow in size whenever someone hovers their cursor over the thumbnails.

2. Easy Slider JQuery Plugin

An easily configurable content slider plugin for JQuery that supports both horizontal and vertical scrolling. I have used this for my last Premium theme – Freedom.

3. Floom

This is the prettiest of them all! It uses Mootools to beautifully transition between images and overall a very cutting-edge image slider.

4. Lightweight JQuery Content Slider

This is another JQuery slider plugin with the lightest footprint of only 380Kb. A great option if you quickly need to integrate a slider into your website.

5. Automatic Image Slider with CSS & JQuery

A nifty styled Image slider using CSS and JQuery script. This can be used quickly by just replacing the images with your own.

6. JQuery Pager Plugin

This is another content scroller with navigation links to scroll between slides – hence the name, Pager.

7. Image Rotator

A great way to display portfolio pieces, E-Commerce product images, or even as an image gallery.

8. Anything Slider

This is a HTML content slider that comes with both navigation tabs, scrolling arrows, autoplay feature and much more.

9. JQuery Coda Slider

This is an accessible ‘Coda’-like slider interface that also allows you to place links to the sliding content anywhere on the page and have the effect (and navigation) still work.

10. S3slider

A very sleek content slider that scrolls transparent, layered content over your images.

11. Featured Content Slider

With this slider, you can show off the best content of your website or blog in a nice intuitive way that will surely catch more eyeballs.

12. Moving Boxes

With zooming panels (in/out) and scroller buttons, this content slider is a total winner!

13. Sliding Boxes & Captions

This script lets you make animated boxes with sliding layers of content on mouseovers. Very neat looking!

14. GalleryView

GalleryView aims to provide JQuery users with a flexible, attractive content gallery that is both easy to implement and a snap to customize. You can even create your themes for this slider if you wish to do so.

15. JQuery Scrollable

The purpose of this library is to make it extremely easy to add scrolling functionality to a website. Whenever you wish to scroll HTML elements in a visually-appealing manner, this is the only library you need. It scrolls with mouse clicks and even with mouse wheel scrolling action.

16. Carousel WordPress Plugin

This is actually a WordPress plugin that lets you insert a content slider into your posts or pages with ease.

17. JQuery Easy Slides

Possibly the easiest to use JQuery plugin for making slideshows!

18. Looped Slider

Again, a JQuery based slider that lets you display images and content in the form of slides. It uses little dots for navigation.

19. YoxView

YoxView is a free image and video viewer for websites. It’s written in javascript using JQuery and is available as a JQuery plugin.

20. Slick Slideshow

This is a slick and web accessible slideshow widget for your site using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript (JQuery). The site also includes the tutorial where you can learn to do this yourself.